- The argument from the authoritativeness of the scriptures:
In a simple way, this proof suggests that through the vedas we get a proof for the existence of God. The focus is not on the vedas but on the author of the Vedas. Indian philosophy is divided into two categories. The Otrhodox, who believe in the authority of the vedas and the unorthodox, philosophies which do not believe in the authority of the vedas. Nyaya philosophy is one of the six orthodox systems which believes in this authority. The validity of the vedas can be tested the same way we test the claims of scientific research, by following the claims they make about the world and then observe the results. In science many claims cannot be observed, the same way, the experiences described in the vedas which transcend the senses cannot be experienced. Bearing this in mind, Science is still accepted as a whole. Thus even the vedas are accepted as valid and authoritative. Authority is delegated, therefore there must be an authoritative person who created the vedas. Now this authoritative person cannot be a simple human or a soul(jiva) as the Vedas contain extra sensory knowledge and transcendental principles which no ordinary soul can gain. Hence the author of the vedas must be a supreme person who is omniscient, supersensible and infinite. That supreme person is God.
- Causal Argument:
All composite objects of the world(hills, mountains, trees) ,formed by the combination of atoms, have an underlying cause as they are effects. Space, time, ether and the self are not effects as they are infinite substances. The atoms of fire, water, air, earth, light, and the mind are not affected by any cause as they are simple, indivisible, infinitesimal substances. But all other worldly objects are effects to a cause as they are made up of various parts and possess limited dimensions. These objects are a result of a number of material causes. Material cause in simple terms is the matter out of which something is made out of. Eg- A table is made out of wood, thus its material cause is wood. Therefore there must be an intelligent cause for all these effects because the material causes of these objects cannot simply produce such objects which require some level of order, direction and coordination to produce them. To understand this let us take the example of a clay pot. Clay cannot just mold itself into a beautiful clay pot. It needs the skill of a potter, just the material cause, the clay is not enough to create a composite object, the clay pot. This intelligent cause must be omniscient since only an omniscient being will have knowledge of atoms that are infinitely small. This intelligent cause is God and can only be God.
- The argument from adrsta
Every event in our life has a cause. This follows directly from the law of causation, that every effect has a cause. Therefore, every event in our life which brings us happiness or sorrow has a cause for it. We enjoy and suffer in our lives due to our moral actions. The law that governs our lives is the law of karma which requires that every individual must face the fruits or the consequences of their actions depending if their actions have been good or bad. Therefore our joys and sorrows of life are determined by our own actions. There are also some joys and sorrows in life which cannot be traced back to our actions in this life. This is because our past life actions have a karmic effect on our present lives. There is an interval between the time of action and the time the consequence is faced. Eg: Many white-collar criminals, get away with stealing tons of money and then enjoy a life of riches. The question arises how is the appropriate degree of reward or consequence determined?
So it is believed that our good actions produce a certain efficiency in our souls and bad actions produce a certain deficiency in our souls. This comparison of merit and demerit caused by good and bad actions is called adrsta. Ardsta is the sum total of our merits and demerits of past actions which affects our present. This answers the doubt of past life karmic actions. As the efficiency and deficiency is caused to the soul. It is that very soul which is reborn but only with a different body. But adrsta is an un-intelligent principle, it alone cannot decide the degree of consequence that one should face. So it must be that adrsta is guided by an intelligent cause. This intelligent agent cannot be an individual soul for they do not know anything about their adrsta and cannot bend or change adrsta to their own will. Thus, the intelligent agent which guides adrsta is an eternal, omnipotent, and omniscient being. This divine being is God.
Contributed by Jai T